Winslow Taylor is a controversial figure in management history. His innovations in industrial
engineering, particularly in time and motion studies, paid off in dramatic improvements in
productivity. At the same time, he has been credited with destroying the soul of work, of dehumanizing factories, making
men into automatons. Under Taylor's management system, factories are managed through scientific methods rather than by use
of the empirical "rule of thumb" so widely prevalent in the days of the
late nineteenth century when F. W. Taylor devised his system and published "Scientific
Management" in 1911.
main elements of the Scientific Management are  : "Time studies Functional or specialized
supervision Standardization of tools and implements Standardization of work methods Separate
Management by exception principle The use of "slide-rules and similar time-saving devices"
Instruction cards for workmen Task allocation and large bonus for successful performance The
use of the 'differential
rate' Mnemonic systems for classifying products and implements A routing system A modern
costing system etc. etc. " Taylor called these elements "merely the elements or
details of the mechanisms of management" He saw them as extensions of the four principles of management. 1. The development of a true science 2. The scientific selection of the
workman 3. The scientific education and
development of the workman 4. Intimate and friendly
cooperation between the management and the men.