Weber was the first to observe and write on bureaucracies, which developed in Germany during the
19th century. He considered them to be efficient, rational and honest, a big improvement over the haphazard
administration that they replaced. The German government was better developed than those in the United States and Britain
and was nearly equal to that of France.
saw that modern officialdom functioned according to six principles: (1) Fixed and official
jurisdictional areas, which are ordered by rules, that is laws and administrative
regulations. (2) Hierarchy and levels of graded authority where the lower offices are supervised by the higher ones. (3)
Management is based on official documents (the files). (4) The officials have
thorough and expert training. (5) It requires the full time work of the official. (6)
follows rules. While these principles seem obvious today, German government agencies were
pioneering modern administration to replace practices dating back to the Middle Ages owing loyalty to the king, dukes
and the church.
is also known for his theory of charismatic leadership. Charisma is the gift from above where a
leader knows from inside himself what to do. An example is St. Paul. This contrasts with traditional leadership of a king
or modern rational leadership of an administrative or elected leader.