n"We don't even know what skills may be needed in
the years ahead. That is why
we must train our young people in the fundamental fields of knowledge, and equip them to understand and cope with change.
That is why we must give
them the critical qualities of mind and durable qualities of character that will serve them in circumstances we cannot now
even predict." John Gardner,
nJohn Gardner was born on October 8, 1912 in Los Angeles,
California, and lived in
the then-rural village of Beverly Hills, California. John graduated from Stanford in 1935 with a degree in psychology, and
in 1938, received his Ph.D.
in psychology from the University of California at Berkeley.
nIn 1943, Gardner entered the Marine Corps and the Office
of Strategic Services,
the intelligence arm of the American war effort. Upon returning from the war, John Gardner looked to couple his interest
in human development with a new
desire to effect change in the world. In 1946, Gardner joined Carnegie Corporation and in 1955, became
the corporation’s president
as well as the head of Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.In 1961, Gardner published his first major book, "Excellence," arguing that the United States
must strive for both excellence and
equality at every level of society.
nOn July 27, 1965, John Gardner was sworn in as the
Secretary of Health, Education,
and Welfare (HEW), a federal agency with a multi-billion dollar budget, 150 programs, and more than 100,000 employees
(later, this department
was split into the Department of Education and Department of Health and Human Services). He played a large role in
enforcing the Civil Rights Act
of 1964, making sure that federal funds were not distributed in a discriminatory way.